Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H, often known informally as Bosnia), is a country in Southeast Europe, located within the Balkans. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is bordered by Serbia to the east, Montenegro to the southeast, and Croatia to the north and southwest. It is not entirely landlocked as to the south it has a narrow coast on the Adriatic Sea. The country is home to three main ethnic groups or, officially, constituent people, as specified in the constitution. Bosnians are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, and Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is usually identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Roma, Ukrainians, and Turks.
GDP per capita
BAM (1 BAM = 0,51 euro)
Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H, often known informally as Bosnia), is a country in Southeast Europe, located within the Balkans. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is bordered by Serbia to the east, Montenegro to the southeast, and Croatia to the north and southwest. The country is home to three main ethnic groups or, officially, constituent people, as specified in the constitution. Bosnians are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, and Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is usually identified in English as a Bosnian.
There are two healthcare systems in Bosnia and Herzegovina. One system in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the second in Republika Srpska.
There are 13 different subsystems of healthcare insurance in the Federation that provide three different levels of healthcare. Out of the 13 sub-systems, there are 10 cantonal health systems and one federal. For the 10 cantonal health systems, each canton is responsible for paying for the healthcare of its citizens.
It is mandatory for everyone in Bosnia and Herzegovina to have healthcare coverage and insurance, but the government does not pay for that insurance. It mainly finances insurance through contributions by the people. In 2014, more than 90% of the revenue collected came from out-of-pocket expenses. Republika Srpska, on the other hand, has a more centralized healthcare system. It involves one ministry that handles finances and the business side while the second ministry handles medicines. However, like the Federation, Republika Srpska also funds its healthcare through contributions by the people.
In 2020 the pharmaceutical market in Bosnia and Herzegovina was worth 334 million EUR (+3.9% vs. 2019).
In the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the jurisdiction over the health sector is divided between the federal government and the Cantons, which means that the health sector is organized at the cantonal level and coordinated at the federal level. The reimbursement list in the Federation of B&H, contains only generic names. Medicine prices are established during negotiations of the Federal Ministry of Health with drug manufacturers. The price includes a manufacturing price of a drug, relevant customs duties, other related costs of imports for imported drugs and the amount of wholesale margins (the maximum allowed margin is 8%).
In contrary to the entity Federation of B&H, the health system in the entity Republic of Srpska (RS) is fully centralized. Compulsory health insurance is regulated by the Health Insurance Fund of RS as an independent organization, which defines the reimbursement list. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and the Health Insurance Fund establish the pricing system.
The healthcare budget is under pressure due to the ageing population and poverty.
There is an ongoing shortage of healthcare professionals in the country, especially on the level of general practitioners and nurses.
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